Thursday, June 11, 2015

CONDITION OF SCIENCE IN INDIA AFTER 1947

Foundation of scientific base of India was set by the Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru. He was greatly influenced by the vision of 3 of his associates: H. J. Bhabha, S. S. Bhatnagar and Vikram Sarabhai. With the priceless efforts of these great people. India got significant gains in nuclear energy and space technology. Continues efforts were being made in order to put India in the list of country that has advanced nuclear technology. With the use of this advance technology non-polluting electricity can be generated. Launching of Mangalyaan in 2013 is an evidence of best efforts and potential of Indian scientist and technology.India used fully Indian technology to launch Mangalyaan as opposed to the first rocket which was launched in 50 years before, 1963. In this first rocket almost all things was coming from abroad. In September 2014 India contributed its name in the list of those country those studied red planet. It is good to know that annual budget of (ISRO) is 1/10th of NASA. IT sector is strength of Indian technology.  IT sector of India is capable to provide various job opportunities to different  age  group  people  of  India.  Today,  Bangalore  is  taken  into  account  to  be  one  in  all  the  most  important technology clusters of the planet.


Weakness


Indian government continuously establishing and increasing the quantity of IITs and Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research (IISERs) in order to extend Science and Technology within the country. Although India has gained appreciable success in science and technology all over the world but still Indian science could not retain its dominance position among the developing countries. Technology of India is still behind China, South Korea and Brazil.It is true that research activities in India can be done only in selected institutions in India. However, the number of good practicing scientists is declining. We are still waiting for that day when a Indian scientist will get a Nobel Prize after independence.

Table1: Country contribution in global research journals
Name of Country % of Contribution
India 3.5%
USA 28%
China 10%
Brazil 6%


Table2: No of scientific article publication
Name of Country No. of Scientific Article publication
USA 2 Million
China 1 Million
India 240,000


University System

Quality of research in science in Indian university has been now decline.  All main four IITs of India has now got position in between 251 and 400. According to Higher Education World University Rankings-2013 there is only one Indian university i.e. Punjab University which occupied 239 th position. Position of university is determined by following criteria.

Teaching (30%)
Research (30%)
Citations (30%)
Industry income (2.5%)
International outlook (7.5%)


  • Elsevier  report  in  2012  expose  that  only  India  provide  only  4%  of  the  total  Research  &  Development expenditure  which  considerably  too  low  from  other  developed  country.  Universities  in  India  are  mainly focused on teaching not on research. For a better research close interaction between student and teacher is necessary. It is not surprising that all the Nobel prizes go to the scientists which are working under university system.
  • Focus on research in India has now been migrating from Indian universities with the opening of a huge number of national laboratories in India. This may leads to the decline of science research in the Indian universities.
  • In  order  to  improve  research  in  Indian  Universities  a  proper  interaction  is  required  in  between teachers and researchers who are working in National Laboratories. There is also a need for incentive in the form of an out-of-the-box remuneration package. For example, research projects may have component for honorarium to teachers like 3 month’s salary as exists in many American universities. It is a need to aware people that science is a rewarding career opportunity particularly when companies outside India have been involved in order to improve R & D program which are running in India.
  • Researchers of India are facing bureaucratic hurdles in sanction to purchase scientific equipments.This problem has been acknowledged by Prime Ministers. Scientific Advisory Council (SAC) has demanded to the leaders of India to eliminate bureaucracy hurdles in research.
  • Lets  we hope that  National  Science  and  Engineering  Research  Board  (NSERB),  will  curtail  thescientific funding problems by making simple administration process.

New Governmental initiatives

  • To improve science and research, the DST has launched a scheme known as Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research. Duration of this program is 5 years. This program fascinating and encouraging the young students to make their carrier in science. With the help of this type of scheme it will be easy to catch young and good quality researchers. 25 Jawahar lal Nehru Fellowships have been instituted under this fellowship well known scientist from abroad will be called to work in Indian institutions for 3 years. The Prime Minister had made Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) policy-2013. The main focus of this policy is in large scale participation of industry in Research and Development (R & D) activities.
  • The STI policy also focuses on establishing world class research and development infrastructure to position India among the top 5 global scientific powers by 2020. The aim of STI policy is to promote scientific temper in society. World-class laboratories should also be established under this policy in order to gain global leadership in areas of science in the world.

Some Challenges

  • In  coming  year  India  will  face  so  many  National  problems.  These  challenges  will  mainly  come  from agricultural sector. In 2020, India will require 370 million tones of foods grains but the availability of land and water is low. It will be required to develop seeds which will ensure quality yield even under constraints of water. India has to upgrade its technology for soil up gradation.
  • Water availability in the country is at a critical point for discussion. In 1951, it was 3450 cubic meterper person (cmpp). It is now 2000 cubic meter per person! With the growth of water demand India has to develop new perennial source of fresh water by developing cost- effective technology. Capacity of nuclear reactors in India is only 3% of the requirement. While percentage of producing electricity of other developed country like France, USA, Russia, UK is more than India. Technology has to be developed to make nuclear energy cost-effective by using more indigenous resources. Science should be a part of our society, it is not because of our future is depend upon it but to instilling a scientific attitude and temper in our population in order to growth of our nation.
  • Media needs awareness for highlighting the achievements of science, recognizing the contribution of Indian scientists and providing connect between science and society.

References

[1]  Alexander,  Steve. E-Commerce.  (2006:  from  Computers  and  Information  Systems). Encyclopedia Britannica 2008.
[2] Desai, Ashok V. (2006). "Information and other Technology Development" in Encyclopedia of  India (vol.2),edited by Stanley Wolpert. 269–273. Thomson Gale: ISBN 0-684-31351-0.
[3] Ketkar, Prafulla (2006). "European Union, Relations with (Science and technology)" in Encyclopedia  ofIndia (vol.(26)2), edited by Stanley Wolpert. 48–51. Thomson Gale: ISBN 0-684-31351-0
[4] Khan, Sultanat Aisha (2006). "Russia, relations with" in Encyclopedia of India (vol. 3), edited by StanleyWolpert.419–422. Thomson Gale: ISBN 0-684-31352-9.
[5] Nanda, B. R. (2006). "Nehru, Jawaharlal" in Encyclopedia of India (vol. 3), edited by Stanley Wolpert.222–227.Thomson Gale: ISBN 0-684-31352-9.
[6] Prabhu, Joseph (2006). "Institutions and Philosophies, Traditional and Modern" in Encyclopedia of India(vol. 2), edited by Stanley Wolpert. 23–27. Thomson Gale: ISBN 0-684-31351-0
[7] Raja, Rajendran (2006).  "Nuclear weapons testing and development" in Encyclopedia of India (vol. 3),edited by Stanley Wolpert. 253–254. Thomson Gale: ISBN 0-684-31352-9.
[8] Sankar, U.(2007). The Economics of India's Space Programme, Oxford University Press, New Delhi.  ISBN978-0-19-568345-5.
[9]  Sharma.  Shalendra  D.(20006).  "Biotechnology Revolution" in Encyclopedia  of  India (vol.  1),  edited  by Stanley Wolpert. 154–157. Thomson Gale: ISBN 0-684-31350-2.
[10] Sharma,  Shalendra  D.  (2006).  "Globalization"  in Encyclopedia  of  India  (vol.  2),  edited  by  StanleyWolpert. 146–149. Thomson Gale: ISBN 0-684-31351-0
[11] Schwartzberg, Joseph E. (2008). India. Encyclopedia Britannica.
[12] Vrat, Prem (2006). "Indian Institutes of Technology" in Encyclopedia of India (vol. 2), edited by StanleyWolpert. 229–231. Thomson Gale: ISBN 0-684-31351-0
[13] Wolpert, Stanley (2008). India. Encyclop√¶dia Britannica. 


Author- Ankit Garg, Assistant Professor, Amity University, Haryana

2 comments:

Thanks.

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